Comparison of Open and Closed Systems for Vitrification
Vitrification is a process by which cells can be frozen in such a way that a glass-like or vitrified state is obtained. Vitrification eliminates the formation of intracellular ice crystals. Vitrification of mouse embryos was first reported in 1985 (Rall and Fahy, 1985). Since then, this technique has been extended to vitrification of early-cell embryos in cattle (Vajta et al., 1997) and humans (Mukaida et al., 1998) as well as blastocysts for cattle (Park et al., 1999), mice (Lane et al., 1999), humans (Yokota et al., 2001), monkeys (Yeoman et al., 2001) and pigs (Misumi et al., 2003)….
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