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The Effect of Time in Vitrification Solution on Mouse Embryo Development, Birth Rate and Dna Damage

Introduction
Vitrification is a process by which cells can be frozen in such a way that a glass-like or vitrified state is obtained. This process eliminates the formation of intracellular ice crystals which can damage organelles within the cell and cell membranes. Vitrification of mouse embryos was first reported in 1985 (Rall and Fahy). Since then, this technique has been extended to early-cell embryos (two- to eight-cells) in cattle (Vajta et al., 1997) and humans (Mukaida et al., 1998) as well as blastocysts for cattle (Park et al., 1999), mice (Lane et al., 1999), humans (Yokota et al., 2001), monkeys (Yeoman et al., 2001) and pigs (Misumi et al., 2003).

One concern regarding vitrification is the exposure of the embryos to high-osmolarity cryoprotectants because….

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