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The Natural History of Seminal Leukocytes in Men Seeking Infertility Evaluation

Measurement of leukocytes in semen has been a stan- dard component of the semen analysis, but its true significance is still unknown. The issue of whether or not leuko- cytospermia is detrimental to fertility is unsettled. Some studies found no detrimental effects of leukocytospermia [1, 2] but several others correlated seminal leukocytes with impaired semen parameters, especially sperm morphol- ogy and motility [3-5]. Adding to the confusion is an older study that suggested that seminal leukocytes at concentra- tions between 1 and 3 million/mL (M/ml) are beneficial for sperm function, arguably due to effects of cytokines or…

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